Standard case definition, causes, signs/symptoms of priority Diseases



This is a comprehensive article of all types of common and priority diseases, its causes and signs/symptoms;






Any person with fever or history of fever within 24hours; without signs of severe disease (vital organ dysfunction) is diagnosed clinically as malaria.


Any person with fever or history of fever within 24hours; and with laboratory confirmation of diagnosis by malaria blood film or other diagnostic test for malaria parasites.


Any patient hospitalized with severe febrile disease with accompanying vital organ dysfunction diagnosed clinically.


Any patient hospitalized with P. falciparum asexual parasitaemia as confirmed by laboratory tests with accompanying symptoms and signs of severe disease ( vital organ dysfunction) diagnosed through laboratory.



Lymphatic Filariasis:


Resident of an endemic area with a clinical sign of hydrocoele or lymphoedema for which other causes of these findings have been excluded.


A person with positive laboratory diagnosis of microfilaremia in blood smear, filarial antigenaemia or positive ultrasound test.




A person showing one of there cardinal signs of leprosy: hypo-pigmented or reddish skin lesion, loss or decrease of sensations in skin patch, enlargement or peripheral nerve.



Lassa and Crimean-Congo:


Illness with sudden onset of fever, malaise, weakness, irritability, headache, severe pain in limbs, and loins and marked anorexia.

Early development of flush on face and chest and conjunctival infection, hemorrhagic enanthem of soft palate, uvula and pharynx, and often fine petechial rash spreading from the chest and abdomen to the rest of the body, sometimes with large purpuric areas.



Influenza-like illness (ILI):



A person, chd or adult with sudden onset of fever > 38 degree Celsius, cough , sore throat.





Any individual presenting with a resting blood pressure measurement, (based on the average of three readings) at or above 140mm Hg for systolic pressure, or greater than or equal to 90mm Hg for diastolic pressure.



Human influenza:


Close contact with a person confirmed HN51 case.

Exposure to poultry, wild birds or their remains to environments contaminated by their feaces in an area where H5N1 infections have been confirmed.

Consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products in an area where H5N1 infections in animals or humans have been suspected or confirmed.

Close contact with a confirmed H5N1 infected animal other than poultry or wild birds.

Handling samples (animal or human) suspected of containing H5N1 virus in a laboratory or other setting.



Foodborne illnesses:

2 or more people present with similar symptoms who consumed common food or drink.




A person presenting a skin lesion with itching or blister living in endemic area of guinea worm.




Clinical illness or systematic manifestations compatible with diphtheria in a person with an upper respiratory tract infection or infection at another part ( e.g wound, cutaneous) with one of the following:

isolation of Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae with confirmation of toxin from an appropriate clinical specimen including the exudative membrane


Isolation of other toxihenic corynebacteria (corynebacteriumulcerans or Corynebacteriumpseudotuberculosis) from an appropriate clinical specimen including the exudative membrane


Histopathologic diagnosis of diphtheria




A person with visible blood in stool





Increased thirst, increased hunger, frequent urination.



Dengue fever:


Any person with acute febrile illness of 2-7 days duration with 2 or more of the following:

headache, retro-orbital plain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia.





A person ages 5years of more with severe dehydration acute watery diarrhoea, vomiting, cholera epidemic.



Buruli ulcer ( Mycobacterium Nlcerans disease):


A person presenting painless skin nodule, plaque, ulcer, living or having visited a BU endemic area.





A person showing symptoms of Cough, breathlessness, wheezing often at night, that come and go, vary from day to day, and if it cause the person to wake up at night.






Any person with acute onset characterized by several clinical forms which are:


Cutaneous form: Any person with skin lesion evolving over 1-6 days from a popular through a vesicular stage, to a depressed black eschar invariably accompanied by oedema that may be mild to extensive.


Gastrointestinal: Any person with abdominal distress characterized by nausea, vomiting, anorexia and followed by fever.


Pulmonary ( Inhalation): Ant petao. with brief prodome resembling acute viral respiratory illness, followed by rapid onset of hypoxia, dyspnoea and high temperature, with X-ray evidence of mediastinal widening


Meningeal: Any person with acute onset of high fever possibly with convulsions, loss of consciousness, meningeal signs and symptoms, commonly noted in all systemic infections, but may present without any other clinical symptoms of anthrax.



Acute viral hepatitis: Ant person with acute illness including: acute jaundice, dark urine, anorexia, malaise, extreme fatigue, an right upper quadrant tenderness.



Acute hemorrhagic fever syndrome: Acute onset of fever of less than 3 weeks duration in a severely ill patient and any of the following: hemorrhagic or purpuric rash, epistaxis (nose bleeding), haematemesis (blood in vomit), haemoptysis (blood in sputum), blood in stool, other hemorrhagic symptoms and unknown predisposing factors for hemorrhagic manifestations.





malnutrition in newborns: low birth weight; any new born with a weight less than 2500 grams (5.5 Ibs)


malnutrition in children: Bilateral pitting oedema, children 6 to 59 months with MUAC <11.5cm (high risk of mortality), children under five who are underweight ( indicator: weight for age <-2 ZScore).


Pregnant women giving birth to low weight babies (birth weight <2.5kg)





Any person with fever and maculopapular (non-vesicular), generalized rash and cough, coryza or conjunctivitis (red eyes).


Meningococcal meningitis:


Any person with sudden onset of fever (>38.5 degree Celsius rectal or 38.0 degree Celsius axillary), neck stiffness, altered consciousness and other meningeal signs.



Neonatal tetanus:



Any newborn with a normal ability to suck and cry during the first two days of life, and who, between the 3rd and 28th day of age cannot suck normally and become stiff or has convulsions or both.





Any child with a mouth ulcer and other earning signs such as: malnutrition, poor hygiene, recent illness from: measles, persistent diarrhoea, or malaria.






A person on an endemic area, any person with fibrous nodules in subcutaneous tissues.






sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, severe malaise, prostration and very painful swelling of lymph nodes, cough with blood stained sputum, chest pain, and difficulty in breathing.



Poliomyelitis ( acute flaccid paralysis ): Any child under 15 years of age with acute flaccid paralysis, or any person with paralytic illness at any age.



Rabies: Any person with one or more of the following: headache, neck pain, nausea, fever, fear of water, anxiety, agitation, abnormal tingling sensations or pain at the wound site when contact with a rabid animal e.g dog.



Severs acute respiratory Infections (SARIs):( persons > 5 years old):


Sudden onset of fever, cough or sore throat, shortness of breath or difficult breathing.



Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS):


Any person with fever, one or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract illness (cough, difficult breath, shortness of breath), radiographic evidence of kung infiltrates consistent with pneumonia or ARDS or autopsy findings consistent with the pathology of pneumonia or ARDS without an identifiable cause.



Yellow Fever:



Any person with acute onset of fever, with jaundice appearing within 14days of onset of the first symptoms.



Whooping cough: Cough illness lasting at least 2weeks with either paroxysms of coughing, inspiratory “whoop”, or post-tissue vomiting without other apparent cause.



Typhoid fever:



Any person with gradual onset of steadily increasing and then persistently high fever, chills, malaise, headache, site throat, cough, and sometimes abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhoea.





Any person with a cough of three (3) weeks or more.





Urinary shistosomiasis: Any person with blood in urine.

Intestinal shistosomiasis: A person with non-specific abdominal symptoms, blood in stool, hepato (spleno) megaly.





Any person with red sticky eyes who complains of pain and itchiness of the eyes.



Human African trypanosomiasis:


Early stage: A painful chancre originating as a papule and then evolving into a nodule at the primary fly bite site. There may be fever, intense headache, insomnia, painless lymphadenopathy, anaemia, local oedema and rash.


Later stage: cachexia, somnolence, and central nervous system signs.



Small pox (Variola):



An illness with acute onset of fever >38.3 degree Celsius (101 degree Faraday) followed by a rash characterized by vesicles or firm pustules in the same stage of development without other apparent cause.



Severe pneumonia in children under 5years:


A child with cough or difficult breathing, 50 or more breaths per minute for infant age 2 months up to 1 year, 40 or more breaths per minute for young child 1year up to 5years.



Sexually transmitted infections:



Genitalulcer syndrome (non-vesicular):

Any male with an ulcer on the penis, scrotum, or rectum, with or without inguinal adenopathy, or any female with ulcer on labia, vagina, or rectum, with or without inguinal adenopathy.


Urethral discharge syndrome:

Any male with urethral discharge with or without dysuria.



Sickle Cell Disorder:



Any person especially infants and children with typical painful hand and foot syndrome, joint pain with or without fever should be suspected of having SCD. such persons should be examined with care and if no other cause is found Emmel test should be performed in case of known or unknown parental SCS traits.




Soil transmitted Helminths:



Ascariasis: Abdominal or respiratory symptoms with history of passing worms, passage of Ascarislumbricoides (anus,mouth,nose) or presence of Ascarislumbricoides eggs in stools.


Hookworm infection: Severe anaemia, presence of hookworm ova in stools.


Trichuriasis: Bloody and mucoid stools, presence of T. trichiura eggs in stools.